The very earliest valves were operated by a simple tappet gear. The Walschaerts valve gear was slow to gain popularity. The Gooch valve motion set for running ahead. Therefore the valve travel is shortened, steam being cut off sooner in the stroke by the earlier closing of the port; and as the die block approaches the middle of the link so the steam is cut off earlier as the travel of the valve becomes less and less. The die The valves on a steam engine control the flow of steam in and out of the cylinders. used here are consistent with late GWR and BR(W) usage. Many of the Brighton tank engines designed by Stroudley would run at quite a good speed, in either direction, in mid-gear. XD. The original articles on these pages are mainly contractions from my book, "An Introduction to Great Western Locomotive Development", a On the back ends of these are fitted large forked ends, each carrying a pin, on which the die block is mounted. Component names used do vary, especially in US practice, but those 561x289px 57.58 KB. It not only allows for reversing the engine, but the driver can also set it to cut off steam at any part of the stroke of the piston. Several types of valves were developed over the years, but most fall within three main catagories: 1. Since those early days he gear. Stephenson valve gear: | | | British LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0 Locomotive no. When the position of the expansion link AN EARLY VALVE GEAR, in which a loose eccentric on the axle is driven by a collar and driving pin. This valve gear fulfils a double purpose. Valve gears site, especially in this context the page on Stephenson's It was obvious that a quick reversing gear was essential, and so the single-lever-operated gear came into being. Although a brief glance into history (except on the Continent) might place Stephenson’s gear as being largely replaced by Walschaerts’ gear around the turn of the 20 th century, both gears were invented almost simultaneously. Once the general principles are understood the various means of applying them will present no difficulty. For the smaller types of locomotives, however, the gear continues to hold its own. Steam Locomotive Walschaert Valve Gear Diagram Walschaert Valve Gear --Invented in 1844 by Egide Walschaerts, foreman of the Belgian State Railway (Diagram based on 4-6-2 Pacific, Soo #2714) 1. setting, to an amount sufficient to allow the valve to open at the right time. Now the fun starts; it's time to animate the valve gear. This arrangement reduces the vertical height required to accommodate the gear on the locomotive. and the expansion die block (also called the link block). A RAILWAY traveller about to start a long journey often strolls up to take a look at the engine, and if he is non-technical he usually regards the locomotive as a wonderful and complicated piece of mechanism. The expansion link is suspended from the arm on To reverse the engine the driver had to move the treadle half-way, lift the pins out of engagement, move the valve spindles by another lever, until the engine began to move backward, and force the treadle right home as the holes in the eccentric plates came opposite the pins in the crank collars—a truly cumbersome way of reversing. Allan valve gear, a straight-link valve gear. All motorists know the advantage of advancing the ignition as far as possible when a car is running at high speed. The links work between the jaws of the forks. The locomotive is a parallel instance; taken as a whole it appears formidable and complicated, yet any average person can easily understand it if the component parts are separately considered. The Stephenson valve gear remained the most popularly used valve gear on 19th-century locomotives. Many enginemen still call them “tumblers” or “tumbling blocks”. Walschaerts Valve Gear. This lay-out of the Stephenson link motion is used largely on the Great Western locomotives, and gives every satisfaction. This piston-rod is moved back and forth by a piston, which is a disk moving up and down in a circular chamber closed at the ends and called a cylinder. Return to the GWR Information Index Page. From Larry Koehl, Live Steam Magazine, June 1976 The Throw of Eccentric formula, below, applies only to locomotives using Stephenson valve gear. Steam is admitted and exhausted from either end of the cylinder by a valve, which may be of the slide or piston type. Walschaerts' gear has two distinct inputs, from the eccentric & from the crosshead. This diagram shows the Stephenson link motion reversing gear, with the reverse lever set for running forward. The opening time, however, still had to be the same - that is, with the crank on dead centre; and therefore, the eccentric had to be moved on ahead of the 90 deg. Yahoo. Google Then there is the “launch” link; this also has the open slot, but the eccentric rods are coupled to lugs on the concave side of the link, opposite the ends of the slot. with It is based on the eccentric rod valve gear developed for stationary steam engines, but with the added complexity that unlike a stationary steam engine, a steam locomotive needs to reverse. when the locomotive is put into forward and reverse.The The Stephenson valve gear or Stephenson link or shifting link is a simple design of valve gear that was widely used throughout the world for all kinds of steam engines.It is named after Robert Stephenson but was actually invented by his employees. The rear end of the cylinder is open to the exhaust, the spent steam passing away by the cavity in the slide valve. Alexander Allan, of Crewe works, combined the ideas of the Stephenson and Gooch gears and used them with a straight link, which he claimed was easier to machine up than a curved one. There may be two, three, or four of these cylinders. A casting known as a motion plate, or spectacle plate, is bolted across the frames a little way behind the cylinders. behind it, the engine went backward. In 1874, New Zealand Railways ordered two types of Double Fairlie locomotives from Avonside. Thus, the link motion came into being. You can read more on “Locomotive Valve Gears 2”, “Locomotive Valve Gears 3” and “The Shay Geared Locomotive” on this website. There is the regular “open” locomotive link, which has an open slot, and the fork-ended eccentric rods are coupled above and below it. Stephenson Valve Gear. No lap or lead could be given to the valve with this gear. At first sight, a non-technical or lay reader might wonder why a reversing gear is necessary. William T. James valve gear 1832, used first by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, United States. Piston valves which superseded slide valves in the 20th century; 3. Check between the first and second drivers for another hole. PaxAeternum Jun 28, 2014. When the die block is in the middle of the link it escapes the “wobble”, but is moved by the bodily swing of the link; and, this being just sufficient to move the valve and open the port at either end, steam enters the cylinders and the engine keeps going. This lifts the link; and the die block, instead of being right at the end of the slot, is now a little way from it. eccentrics cause the expansion link to rock to and fro. A school child may pause with awe if asked to spell “incomprehensibility”; but, if the word is divided into two and three letter syllables, any child will spell it without hesitation. arm. HOW THE LOCOMOTIVE WORKS. Piston Valve Steam Locomotives" by E.J. ... Stephenson’s gears way back in the Acorn computer days. layout is fundamentally similar on all the classes with two outside Previous owner's marks include name and date on the front end paper. It is apparent that if a “strap” of metal is fixed on the eccentric pulley, and the strap is connected to the valve spindle by a suitable rod, the movement of the eccentric will cause the spindle to move to and fro. Category: Tony's Tips, Locomotives & Miscellaneous. The reversing shaft goes across the frames and activates both sets of valve gear, (and there is no reach rod on the left hand side of course) but the rock shafts and rock arm assemblies are on both sides of the locomotive and independant of each other. full forward gear only the forward eccentric rod controls extension Valve gears such as Stephenson's for example are variable lead valve gears. CARMICHAEL’S VALVE GEAR made use of a single eccentric and a pair of V-shaped gabs. Share: Go to Turbine Lift Off! Valve gear diagram is also on front cover. Both the B class and E class Double Fairlies wer… The former is flat, working over ports cut in a flat face on the cylinder casting. While all these arrangements worked well as reversers pure and simple, the fixed cut-off point still remained; but in 1842 a draughtsman named Williams, employed by Robert Stephenson & Co, conceived the idea of uniting the two eccentrics by means of a link, and connecting the valve rod to a die-block working in it, so that, by moving the rod opposite one or other of the eccentrics, the engine could be reversed. Each eccentric is set so that when the crank is on dead centre the valve just begins to open the steam port, with the motion in “full gear”; that is, with the eccentric rod lining up as near as possible with the valve-rod connexion, the die block being at the end of the link. It is obvious that there is less to-and-fro movement at this point of the link than at the ends. Some engines will run in either direction, with the lever in the middle, and die blocks in the middle of the link; the advance of the eccentrics, due to the valve lap, is responsible for this apparent paradox. A short shaft with two pendulum levers is carried in a substantial bearing on top of the frame; the outside lever is connected to the valve spindle by a short link. This shows the reach rod and the piston valve and external rock The eccentric rods were connected to the top and bottom of the link, but the link itself was placed the other way round, with the concave side towards the steam chest. cylinders. The action of the gear is simplicity itself. ahead of the crank, the engine ran forward; if 90 deg. Therefore, a line drawn through the centres of the eccentrics will not pass through the centre line of the crank axle, but a little to one side of it. Links themselves are of several kinds. IMPROVED GAB GEAR, with two eccentrics, so arranged that lap and lead could be given to the valve to enable the steam in the cylinder to be used expansively. The eccentric rods were not therefore directly connected to the valve spindles, but drove them by a hook and pin, which could be lifted out of engagement by a handle on the footplate. THE STRAIGHT LINK of Allan’s valve gear, here shown set for forward running, is moved upwards to reverse the direction of travel, and at the same time the valve-rod die block is moved downwards in the link. The steam ports are opened a little sooner than they are when in full gear. and from the components inside the frames. The above diagram illustrates in the simplest form how steam turns the wheels of a locomotive. There's a link on Don Ashton's website to where you can download it from. The easiest one to use for Stephenson's is Bill Hall's. Lifting Link 5. Valve gears dispensing with eccentrics are now therefore used on all modern locomotives where the eccentrics, if used, would be “outsize”. When the engine is moving slowly, the port need not open so soon; but when it is running quickly it is obvious that an early opening of the steam ports will help to ensure full pressure on the pistons at the beginning of the stroke, not only maintaining the speed, but also enabling an early cut-off to be made, thus utilizing the steam's expansive properties to the utmost. The driving axle of a modern express passenger or heavy freight engine is massive, to say the least; and eccentrics suitable for fitting on these axles, and carrying straps of sufficient size to drive a valve gear of corresponding dimensions, become unwieldy and present a new problem in the matter of adequate lubrication and the avoidance of excessive friction. The valve rod terminated in a die-block capable of being moved to either end of the link by means of the reverse lever and Roding. © Railway Wonders of the World 2012-20  |  Contents  |  Site Map  |  Contact Us at info@railwaywondersoftheworld.com. Inside Walschaerts' isn't common, the Great Western Castles & Kings used it; the geometry is exactly the same as outside gear. Reach Rod: 4. As stated earlier, the eccentrics do not come exactly opposite, each one being advanced beyond the “right angle”, to compensate for the lap and lead of the valve; and as this advance is in the direction of motion the angles will be on the same side of the crank. forward and back. 4767 sho... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. For some more sophisticated understanding of valve gears I suggest Eccentric Rod 3. Some had the gabs pointing downwards towards the valve spindle; some had them pointing upwards; and some had one above and one below, so that they faced one another, and one engaged directly the other disconnected. Link (Expansion Link) 8. This is really the better plan, as it compensates for any slight misalignment of valve spindle and extension, and prevents undue friction in the motion and excessive wear on the glands. "linked up",and the movement of the extension rod is If the eccentric were 90 deg. Because Stephenson’s gear can achieve near perfection in enabling a one-piece valve to supply both ends of a double-acting cylinder equally its design in any one particular case ought to follow a complete and correct procedure, in the knowledge that straying from its basic simplicity will impair its excellence. If, however, the valve spindles and piston rods are parallel, this is not possible, as the drive would then become what the railwaymen call “skew-whiff”; so a rocking lever is introduced. Bing (M'soft) The valve events stayed the same for all cylinders when wear developed. The die block works on a pin, or in a fork, at the end of the lever. A typical example of this was to be found in the old Stroudley “Gladstones” of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway, where the piston rods passed over the leading coupled axle, and the valve spindles below it, the former inclining downward and the latter upward, the centre lines meeting at the middle of the crank axle. The “ahead” and “astern” positions of the eccentrics were, of course, exactly opposite, and so the treadle could not be operated unless they were moved half a turn, or the engine moved to suit. Very Good. IN FORWARD GEAR. Image size. The steam reverser in the diagram above is in fact the early version, use only on the first ten Merchant Navys, with the lever to the valve gear attached to the rod between the two cylinders. By means of a lever and rod, the eccentric rod could be made to engage with either pin at will; so that the eccentric either moved the valve rod direct, when the engine went ahead, or moved it through the rocking lever in the opposite direction, when the engine, of course, went backwards. In 1844 Egide Walschaerts invented a valve gear that by 1848 appeared very much as it does today. The steam entering the inlet has pushed the piston from the front (right-hand) end of the cylinder to a point half-way along the bore. the reversing shaft by the lifting link, and is moved up and down The next step was to provide an eccentric for each direction of movement, and fix a single gab on the end of either rod, connecting up by suitable rods to a lever on the footplate, so that the driver could engage either gab at will, with a pin in the valve spindle. There are various forms of the Stephenson link motion itself, but all of them have the two eccentrics, one set for forward and one for backward gear, the ends being coupled to a curved slotted link. transferred to the extension rod to open the valves to admit steam.In of the expansion link and only the reverse rod contributes to This fine model in the Science Museum, South Kensington, can be operated by the public and clearly shows the application and working principles of the Gooch gear. The Stephenson valve gear or Stephenson link or shifting link is the oldest and simplest standard design of steam locomotive valve gear.The design is normally attributed to George Stephenson.. Larry suggests adding up to 0.002 inches to the Throw of Eccentric value for each pin in the valve gear (including the eccentric, too) because, even when new, there will be lost motion, possibly enough to eliminate the lead. You may order it from here. In this position, the maximum movement is transmitted to the valve spindle. Stephenson valve gear - most common valve gear in the 19th century, normally inside the locomotive frame. across the frames and activates both sets of valve gear, (and there This arrangement answered perfectly for a time, but soon another trouble arose - the need for expansive working. STEPHENSON’S LINK VALVE GEAR – GWR HALL 4-6-0 This kit is designed to accurately produce in 4mm scale a working model of the Stephenson’s link valve gear. Guys I've been re-reading Don's book on Valve Gears and, in particular, the Stephenson's Gear section. Early locomotives, including the famous “Rocket”, had a single eccentric for each valve, but it was not a fixture on the axle; otherwise the engine could not have been reversed. By Steammechanic Watch. ALLAN’S STRAIGHT LINK MOTION, designed in 1855, made use of two eccentrics for forward and reverse gear. This reversing motion, designed by Daniel Gooch in 1847, had curved links supported by a hanger. See also Valves. There are numerous sources for descriptions of the functioning of If the crank is on “dead centre” - that is, at the extreme end of the stroke - and the piston is up against one end of the cylinder, it must move away from that end, whether the engine goes ahead or backs. This picture shows a working demonstration model of the gear in the Science Museum, South Kensington. Search the site for STEPHENSON VALVE GEAR, the joint invention of Williams and Howe in 1842, was first applied to locomotives by Robert Stephenson & Co, and is still in use throughout the world. On moving the reverse lever the forward gab is disengaged and the back gear rod comes into operation. This page is not intended to discuss the workings of the The gear is controlled by the relative position of the expansion link The oldest diagram in the book. ... especially in this context the page on Stephenson's gear. Young Valve Gear . Connexion between die block and valve spindle is made in a variety of ways. Reply. Several types of valves were developed over the years, but most fall within three main catagories: 1. Everything in this world takes time; and it requires a certain amount of time for the steam to pass through the port and exert its full pressure on the piston head. Download Windows Valve Gear Programs File 10A, 1.57 MB, Version 2.7.3 Download Windows Valve Gear Programs File 10B, 1.26 MB, Version 2.7.3 Download Windows Valve Gear Programs File 10C, 1.25 MB, Version 2.7.3 Download Windows Valve Gear Programs File 10D, 1.28 MB, Version 2.7.3 The rocking lever itself is pivoted at the middle, and supported by a lug on the motion plate. There, in a nutshell, is the whole explanation of the “works” of the engine. The Principles of the Joy and Walschaerts Motions. We must, however, consider what happens when the piston is half way along the stroke, and the crank on bottom centre, at its lowest position. There's a good diagram of the Stephenson valve gear on page 24 of MR Cyclopedia Volume 1 - Steam Locomotives. Steam Engine Valve Gear On The Computer Downloadable freeware simulations of every kind of valve gear you've ever heard of by Charles Dockstader (CA). Valve setting with Stephenson link valve timing on our 7 1/4" Forney locomotive. reduced and affected by both eccentrics. Nutty is a valuable text and Don quotes the formula for eccentric rod length to give equal lead as t+X^2/2t (Where t is the distance from the axel centre to a defined point relative to the centre of the link). DESIGN AND INVENTION - 13 THE Stephenson, Allan, and Gooch link motions required four eccentrics on the driving axle, as explained in the chapter “Locomotive Valve Gears”.With inside-cylinder engines this requirement restricted the thickness of the crank webs - a serious matter as the engines increased in size. Reverse Arm & Shaft 7. Dispose of filings safely and wash hands after handling. First Edition. The piston moves up and down the cylinder, in exactly the same way, whichever way the engine runs. William T. James valve gear 1832, used first by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, United States. The Stephenson valve gear or Stephenson link or shifting link [1] is a simple design of valve gear that was widely used throughout the world for all kinds of steam engine.It is named after Robert Stephenson [2] but was actually invented by his employees. Yet another arrangement is needed when the cylinders are outside and the valves on top of them. The locomotive invariably starts with the gear in this position. These could be raised or lowered to engage with pins on a rocking lever attached to the valve spindle, so producing a backward or forward movement of the engine as required. DOUBLE GABS on the valve spindle were used in the final development of the gab gear, and the two eccentric rods were connected by a bar as shown in this diagram. These are actually of the nominally Collett 9300 class, but the Williams's idea in its original form could not be carried out, as it was mechanically impossible to couple the eccentrics themselves by a link; but “two heads are better than one”, and a Stephenson pattern-maker named Howe made the idea a working pro position by shifting the link to the ends of the eccentric rods. Eccentric Crank 2. Published ... Join the community to add your comment. The die block was fixed direct on the end of the valve rod, and this was moved by a lever and suitable rods. The “Planet” type of engine, which succeeded the “Rocket”, had inside cylinders, and the eccentrics were set close together in the middle of the driving axle, between the cranks. This direct connexion is also used for inside cylinder valves, when the steam chest is above or below the cylinders but inclined towards the centre of the driving axle, instead of being parallel to the cylinder bores. includes an excellent isometric drawing showing the parts in detail. Experience shows that Bulleid's valve gear was very free running when well maintained. Animating the Valve Gear. Although a Zeuner diagram is an approximation it is most useful for those wishing to see proportionally the connection between the piston and valve parameters. For adhesives, read manufacturer's instructions regarding vapour … Dolgoch '', preserved on the end of the forks are opened little... Information is the whole explanation of the radial stephenson valve gear diagram 2009 previous Next Go to Decoders HO. At first sight, a non-technical or lay reader might wonder why a reversing gear, the... And out of the slide or piston type to open at the end of the expansion link and extension. 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Carmichael devised an arrangement requiring only one fixed eccentric Next Go to Decoders for HO Atlas:! In particular, the spent steam passing away by the cavity in 19th.
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